Shallow Thoughts : tags : css

Akkana's Musings on Open Source Computing, Science, and Nature.

Sat, 20 Jul 2013

Make Firefox warn you of specific types of links before you click

Sometimes when I middleclick on a Firefox link to open it in a new tab, I get an empty new tab. I hate that.

It happens most often on Javascript links. For instance, suppose a website offers a Help link next to the link I'm trying to use. I don't know what type of link it is; if it's a normal link, to an HTML page, then it may open in my current tab, overwriting the form I just spent five minutes filling out. So I want to middleclick it, so it will open in a new tab. On the other hand, if it's a Javascript link that pops up a new help window, middleclicking won't work at all; all it does is open an empty new tab, which I'll have to close.

A similar effect happens on PDF links; in that case, middleclicking gives me the "What do you want to do with this?" dialog but I also get a new tab that I have to close. (Though I'm not sure what happens with Firefox's new built-in PDF reader.)

Anyway, since there seems to be no way of making middleclick just do the sensible thing and open these links in a new tab like I asked, it, I can do something almost as good: a user stylesheet that warns me when I'm about to click on one of these special links. This rule changes the cursor to a crosshair, and turns the link bold with colors of red on yellow. Hard to miss!

I put this into userContent.css, inside the chrome directory inside my profile:

/*
 * Make it really obvious when links are javascript,
 * since middleclicking javascript links doesn't do anything
 * except open an empty new tab that then has to be closed.
 */
a:hover[href^="javascript"] {
  cursor: crosshair; font-weight: bold;
  text-decoration: blink;
  color: red; background-color: yellow
  !important
}

/*
 * And the same for PDFs, for the same reason.
 * Sadly, we can't catch all PDFs, just the ones where the actual
 * filename ends in .pdf.
 * Apparently there's no way to make a selector case insensitive,
 * so we have separate cases for .pdf and .PDFb
 */
a:hover[href$=".pdf"], a:hover[href$=".PDF"] {
  cursor: crosshair;
  color: red; background-color: yellow
  !important
}

In selectors, ^="javascript" means "starts with javascript", for links like javascript:do_something(). $=".pdf" means "ends with .pdf". If you want to match a string anywhere inside the href, *= means "contains".

What about that crosshair cursor? Here are some of the cursors you can use: Mozilla's cursor documentation page. Don't trust the images on that page -- hover over each cursor to see what your actual browser shows.

You can also warn about links that would open a new window or tab. If you prefer to keep control of that, rather than letting each web page designer decide for you where each link should open, you can control it with the browser.link.open newwindow preference. But whatever you do with that preference you can add a rule for a:hover[target="_blank"] to help you notice links that are likely to open in a new tab.

You can even make these special links blink, with text-decoration: blink. Assuming you're not a curmudgeon like I am who disables blinking entirely by setting the "browser.blink_allowed" preference to false.

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[ 19:26 Jul 20, 2013    More tech/web | permalink to this entry | comments ]

Tue, 16 Aug 2011

Fixing broken highlighting in Google search bar

Google has been doing a horrible UI experiment with me recently involving its search field.

I search for something -- fine, I get a normal search page page. At the top of the page is a text field with my search terms, like this: [normal-looking google search bar]

Now suppose I want to modify my search. Suppose I double-click the word "ui", or drag my mouse across it to select it, perhaps intending to replace it with something else. Here's what happens: [messed up selection in google search bar]

Whoops! It highlighted something other than what I clicked, changed the font size of the highlighted text and moved it. Now I have no idea what I'm modifying.

This started happening several weeks ago (at about the same time they made Instant Seach mandatory -- yuck). It only happens on one of my machines, so I can only assume they're running one of their little UI experiments with me, but clearing google cookies (or even banning cookies from Google) didn't help. Blacklisting Google from javascript cures it, but then I can't use Google Maps or other services.

For a week or so, I tried using other search engines. Someone pointed me to Duck Duck Go, which isn't bad for general searches. But when it gets to technical searches, or elaborate searches with OR and - operators, google's search really is better. Except for, you know, minor details like not being able to edit your search terms.

But finally it occurred to me to try firebug. Maybe I could find out why the font size was getting changed. Indeed, a little poking around with firebug showed a suspicious-looking rule on the search field:

.gsfi, .lst {
    font: 17px arial,sans-serif;
}
and disabling that made highlighting work again.

So to fix it permanently, I added the following to chrome/userContent.css in my Firefox profile directory:

.gsfi, .lst {
  font-family: inherit !important;
  font-size: inherit !important;
}

And now I can select text again! At least until the next time Google changes the rule and I have to go back to Firebug to chase it down all over again.

Note to Google UI testers:

No, it does not make search easier to use to change the font size in the middle of someone's edits. It just drives the victim away to try other search engines.

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[ 21:05 Aug 16, 2011    More tech/web | permalink to this entry | comments ]

Fri, 25 Jun 2010

Use Firefox User CSS to make LinkedIn discussions scroll normally

Several groups I'm in insist on using LinkedIn for discussions, instead of a mailing list. No idea why -- it's so much harder to use -- but for some reason that's where the community went.

Which is fine except for happens just about every time I try to view a discussion: I get a notice of a thread that sounds interesting, click on the link to view it, read the first posting, hit the space bar to scroll down ... whoops! Focus was in that silly search field at the top right of the page, so it won't scroll.

It's even more fun if I've already scrolled down a bit with the mousewheel -- in that case, hitting spacebar jumps back up to the top of the page, losing any context I have as well as making me click in the page before I can actually scroll.

Setting focus to search fields is a good thing on some pages. Google does it, which makes terrific sense -- if you go to google.com, your main purpose is to type something in that search box.

It doesn't, however, make sense on a page whose purpose is to let people read through a long discussion thread.

Since I never use that search field anyway, though, I came up with a solution using Firefox's user css. It seems there's no way to make an input field un-focusable or read-only using pure CSS (of course, you could use Javascript and Greasemonkey for that); but as long as you don't need to use it, you can make it disappear entirely.

Add this line to chrome/userContent.css inside your Firefox profile (create it if it doesn't already exist):

form#global-search span#autocomplete-container input#main-search-box {
  visibility:hidden;
}

Then restart Firefox and load a discussion page. The search box should be hidden, and spacebar should scroll the page just like it does on most web pages.

Of course, this will need to be updated the next time LinkedIn changes their page layout. And it's vaguely possible that somewhere else on the web is a page with that hierarchy of element names. But that's easy enough to fix: run a View Page Source on the LinkedIn page and add another level or two to the CSS rule. The concept is the important thing.

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[ 16:17 Jun 25, 2010    More tech/web | permalink to this entry | comments ]

Sun, 20 Jun 2010

Scaling HTML slides for different projectors with full-page zoom

Regular readers probably know that I use HTML for the slides in my talks, and I present them either with Firefox in fullscreen mode, or with my own Python preso tool based on webkit.

Most of the time it works great. But there's one situation that's always been hard to deal with: low-resolution projectors. Most modern projectors are 1024x768, and have been for quite a few years, so that's how I set up my slides. And then I get asked to give a talk at a school, or local astronomy club, or some other group that has a 10-year-old projector that can only handle 800x600. Of course, you never find out about this ahead of time, only when you plug in right before the talk. Disaster!

Wait -- before you object that HTML pages shouldn't use pixel values and should work regardless of the user's browser window size: I completely agree with you. I don't specify absolute font sizes or absolute positioning on web pages -- no one should. But presentation slides are different: they're designed for a controlled environment where everyone sees the same thing using the same software and hardware.

I can maintain a separate stylesheet -- that works for making the font size smaller but it doesn't address the problem of pictures too large to fit (and we all like to use lots of pictures in presentations, right?) I can maintain two separate copies of the slides for the two sizes, but that's a lot of extra work and they're bound to get out of sync.

Here's a solution I should have thought of years ago: full-page zoom. Most major browsers have offered that capability for years, so the only trick is figuring out how to specify it in the slides.

IE and the Webkit browsers (Safari, Konqueror, etc.) offer a wonderful CSS property called zoom. It works like this:

body {
  zoom: 78.125%;
}

78.125% is the ratio between an 800-pixel projector and a 1024-pixel one. Just add this line, and your whole page will be scaled down to the right size. Lovely!

Lovely, except it doesn't work on Firefox (bug 390936). Fortunately, Firefox has another solution: the more general and not yet standardized CSS transform, which Mozilla has implemented as the Mozilla-specific property -moz-transform. So add these lines:

body {
  position: absolute; left: 0px; top: 0px;
  -moz-transform: scale(.78125, .78125);
}

The position: absolute is needed because when Firefox scales with -moz-transform, it also centers whatever it scaled, so the slide ends up in the top center of the screen. On my laptop, at least, it's the upper left part of the screen that gets sent to the projector, so slides must start in the upper left corner.

The good news is that these directives don't conflict; you can put both zoom and -moz-transform in the same rule and things will work fine. So I've added this to the body rule in my slides.css:

  /* If you get stuck on an 800x600 projector, use these:
  zoom: 78.125%;
  position: absolute; left: 0px; top: 0px;
  -moz-transform: scale(.78125, .78125);
   */

Uncomment in case of emergency and all will be well. (Unless you use Opera, which doesn't seem to understand either version.)

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[ 11:14 Jun 20, 2010    More tech/web | permalink to this entry | comments ]

Mon, 13 Apr 2009

Setting "cursive" and "fantasy" in Firefox: two methods

I'm taking a CSS class, hoping to get a more solid understanding of these CSS parameters I tweak and why they do or don't work, and one of the exercises involved using the CSS font family "cursive". Which, on my Firefox, displayed in MS Comic Sans. That doesn't look very cursive to me!

To test what you're seeing now for cursive and fantasy, use the W3C font-family test page ... or these might work (though they might not survive RSS feeds to other sites):

This is a Cursive font ... ... This is a Fantasy font

Being a font junkie, I have plenty of nice cursive fonts installed. The question was how to tell Firefox about them, since its font dialog (unlike the old Seamonkey/Mozilla suite's) doesn't make any allowance for setting them, nor do the categories show up in about:config.

Method 1: Firefox prefs

The answer was in this Mozillazine thread. Edit user.js in your Firefox profile and add lines like:

// Set cursive and fantasy fonts
user_pref("font.name.cursive.x-western", "Allegro");
user_pref("font.name.fantasy.x-western", "Dragonwick");
(of course, use fonts you have installed, not necessarily Allegro and Dragonwick).

The bug (marked WONTFIX) requesting Firefox offer this in the Preferences window is bug 196405, and related bug 61883.

Method 2: fontconfig

But wait! Soon after I figured out how to set the font family for Firefox, I noticed that the font was still MS Comic Sans in other browsers -- konqueror, midori, opera. It occurred to me that that Comic Sans cursive was probably coming from fontconfig settings, and it should be possible to change fontconfig's defaults for these categories.

And indeed it was, and fairly simple, too. Just make a file named .fonts.conf in your home directory and add this to it:

<?xml version='1.0'?>
<!DOCTYPE fontconfig SYSTEM 'fonts.dtd'>
<fontconfig>
  <alias>
    <family>cursive</family>
    <prefer>
      <family>Allegro</family>
    </prefer>
  </alias>
  <alias>
    <family>fantasy</family>
    <prefer>
      <family>BoomerangItalic</family>
    </prefer>
  </alias>
</fontconfig>

Again, substitute your own fonts ... but beware. The hard part of this exercise turned out to be that some fonts worked and some didn't, following no rhyme or reason. My first five choices for a fantasy font weren't picked up by fontconfig, but finally I found a few that were. It isn't related to whether they have spaces in the font name; it isn't where they're installed (I was using only fonts in ~/.fonts); I have no idea why some fonts work in ~/.fonts.conf and others don't.

It's rather tedious to test, since the only way to test it is to exit and re-start firefox. I've never found a font viewer that will display the fonts visible to fontconfig or pango; you have to start up some full-fledged application like firefox or gimp, and gimp doesn't see categories like cursive or fantasy.

In the end I did find fonts that worked in firefox. But ironically, although the system-level fix seems like a better way to go, my font changes still don't show up in other browsers. In opera, cursive shows up in bold block letters, while its fantasy is MS Comic Sans. Konqeror and Midori don't handle cursive and fantasy at all, showing them as plain sans-serif. And in IE6 running under wine, cursive still shows up as MS Comic Sans ... while fantasy displays in Greek letters.

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[ 20:30 Apr 13, 2009    More tech/web | permalink to this entry | comments ]

Fri, 04 Jul 2008

Making Firefox 3 livable

I finally broke down and spent the time to get Firefox 3 working properly for me ... meaning, mostly, finding replacement extensions for the bare minimum of what I need in a browser: control over cookies (specifically, enabling/disabling them for specific sites), flashblock, and blocking of animated images. I'd downloaded extensions for all those a few weeks ago, but I found that although Firefox 3.0 said the FF3 extensions were active, and Firefox 2 said the old ones were, neither set actually worked.

I decided to start from scratch: remove all extensions -- rm -rf .mozilla/firefox/extensions/* .mozilla/firefox/extensions.* plus apt-get remove firefox-2-dom-inspector -- then install a new set of Firefox 3 add-ons.

After much hunting (I sure wish addons.mozilla.org would offer a way to limit the view to only extensions that work with Firefox 3! Combing through 15 pages of extensions looking for the handful that will actually install gets old fast) I found the replacements I needed: CS Lite for the cookie controls, a newer Flashblock, and Custom Toolbar Buttons as a stopgap for image animation (though I suspect updating anidisable will be a better solution in the long run). This time, with the old firefox 2 extensions purged, the new ones took hold and worked.

I also added a nice extension called OpenBook that fixes the horrible Firefox "Add bookmark" dialog. You know: the one that has two nearly identical dropdown category menus side by side, with the bigger one giving you only a tiny subset of your bookmark categories, and the smaller one being the real one. The one that doesn't offer a space for keyword, so to set up a bookmarklet you have to Add Bookmark, OK, Organize Bookmarks, find the bookmark you just added, Ctrl-I to get the Bookmark info dialog, and finally you can add your keyword. OpenBook gives you a dialog where you can set the keyword to begin with, and it only gives you one menu to list categories so you aren't constantly tempted to click on the wrong one.

Now for the urlbar -- that new firefox 3 "smarter" urlbar that slows down typing in the middle of a word so it can pop up a big fancy window full of guesses (all wrong) about where I might be trying to go. Actually, even if the guesses were right, it wouldn't help, because I'd have to stop typing, search the list visually, then if one of the suggestions was right, move my hand to the mouse or the arrow keys to choose that suggestion. That takes way longer than just typing the url.

But I guess I don't mind unhelpful suggestions popping up as long as it doesn't mess up focus (preventing me from clicking or tabbing to other apps on my screen) or slow down typing. Firefox 3 seems to be handling the focus issue better than firefox 2 did, but the slowdown was quite noticeable on the poor old laptop. So I wanted a way to disable the behavior. A little googling revealed that the Firefox crew immodestly calls their new urlbar the "awesomebar", which aside from giggle factor also proves quite useful in googling: a search on firefox disable awesomebar reveals that I'm not the only one who doesn't like it, and got me several preferences I could tweak in about:config plus a couple of extensions to turn it off entirely. I won't try to summarize, since the best settings depend on your machine's spec, plus personal preference.

Making progress! Now the only issue was getting my urlbar tweaks working, so that typing <Ctrl-Return> after typing a URL opened the URL in a new tab instead of tacking on various silly extensions (oh, yes, of course I wanted to go to http://www.firefox disable awesomebar.com rather than googling for those terms in a new tab). Fortunately, it turned out that the javascript that runs the urlbar has changed very little since firefox 2, and I hardly needed to change anything to get my kitfox extension (v. 0.2) working in Firefox 3.

Only one more issue: this blog. The CSS that handles the right sidebar wasn't displaying right. Seems that Firefox 2 has changed something about its interpretation of CSS, so it was floating the right sidebar way down to the bottom of the page below the last content line. Eventually (after adding firefox-3.0-dom-inspector, another extension that had stopped working in the transition) I discovered the problem: the #content was set to width: 77% while the #rightsidebar's left-margin was at 76%. Apparently Firefox 2 rounded up as needed, whereas Firefox 3 just ignores the left-margin if it would overlap the content, and then floats the sidebar anywhere it thinks it can fit it. Fixing those percentages helped quite a bit, and I added an overflow-x: hidden (on a tip from a helpful person in #firefox) so that wide calendar doesn't hurt layout for narrow windows. I think it's working now ... any readers having problems with the layout in any browser, by all means let me know.

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[ 11:04 Jul 04, 2008    More tech/web | permalink to this entry | comments ]

Tue, 08 Apr 2008

Wrapping plaintext files in Firefox

A friend pointed me to a story she'd written. It was online as a .txt file. Unfortunately, it had no line breaks, and Firefox presented it with a horizontal scrollbar and no option to wrap the text to fit in the browser window.

But I was sure that was a long-solved problem -- surely there must be a userContent.css rule or a bookmarklet to handle text with long lines. The trick was to come up with the right Google query. Like this one: firefox OR mozilla wrap text userContent OR bookmarklet

I settled on the simple CSS rule from Tero Karvinen's page on Making preformated <pre> text wrap in CSS3, Mozilla, Opera and IE:

pre {
 white-space: -moz-pre-wrap !important;
}
Add it to chrome/userContent.css and you're done.

But some people might prefer not to apply the rule to all text. If you'd prefer a rule that can be applied at will, a bookmarklet would be better. Like the word wrap bookmarklet from Return of the Sasquatch or the one from Jesse Ruderman's Bookmarklets for Zapping Annoyances collection.

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[ 10:47 Apr 08, 2008    More tech/web | permalink to this entry | comments ]

Wed, 04 Jul 2007

Make Amazon pages narrow enough to read

I like buying from Amazon, but it's gotten a lot more difficult since they changed their web page design to assume super-wide browser windows. On the browser sizes I tend to use, even if I scroll right I can't read the reviews of books, because the content itself is wider than my browser window. Really, what's up with the current craze of insisting that everyone upgrade their screen sizes then run browser windows maximized?

(I'd give a lot for a browser that had the concept of "just show me the page in the space I have". Opera has made some progress on this and if they got it really working it might even entice me away from Firefox, despite my preference for open source and my investment in Mozilla technology ... but so far it isn't better enough to justify a switch.)

I keep meaning to try the greasemonkey extension, but still haven't gotten around to it. Today, I had a little time, so I googled to see if anyone had already written a greasemonkey script to make Amazon readable. I couldn't find one, but I did find a page from last October trying to fix a similar problem on another website, which mentioned difficulties in keeping scripts working under greasemonkey, and offered a Javascript bookmarklet with similar functionality.

Now we're talking! A bookmarklet sounds a lot simpler and more secure than learning how to program Greasemonkey. So I grabbed the bookmarklet, a copy of an Amazon page, and my trusty DOM Inspector window and set about figuring out how to make Amazon fit in my window.

It didn't take long to realize that what I needed was CSS, not Javascript. Which is potentially a lot easier: "all" I needed to do was find the right CSS rules to put in userContent.css. "All" is in quotes because getting CSS to do anything is seldom a trivial task.

But after way too much fiddling, I did finally come up with a rule to get Amazon's Editorial Reviews to fit. Put this in chrome/userContent.css inside your Firefox profile directory (if you don't know where your profile directory is, search your disk for a file called prefs.js):

div#productDescription div.content { max-width: 90% !important; }

You can replace that 90% with a pixel measurement, like 770px, or with a different percentage.

I spent quite a long time trying to get the user reviews (a table with two columns) to fit as well, without success. I was trying things like:

#customerReviews > div.content > table > tbody > tr > td { max-width: 300px; min-width: 10px !important; }
div#customerReviews > div.content > table { margin-right: 110px !important; }
but nothing worked, and some of it (like the latter of those two lines) actually interfered with the div.content rule for reasons I still don't understand. (If any of you CSS gurus want to enlighten me, or suggest a better or more complete solution, or solutions that work with other web pages, I'm all ears!)

I'll try for a more complete solution some other time, but for now, I'm spending my July 4th celebrating my independance from Amazon's idea of the one true browser width.

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[ 20:01 Jul 04, 2007    More tech/web | permalink to this entry | comments ]

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