# Comparing sunset times with PyEphem (Shallow Thoughts)

Akkana's Musings on Open Source Computing and Technology, Science, and Nature.

## Comparing sunset times with PyEphem

We were marveling at how early it's getting dark now -- seems like a big difference even compared to a few weeks ago. Things change fast this time of year.

Since we're bouncing back and forth a lot between southern and northern California, Dave wondered how Los Angeles days differed from San Jose days. Of course, San Jose being nearly 4 degrees farther north, it should have shorter days -- but by the weirdness of orbital mechanics that doesn't necessarily mean that the sun sets earlier in San Jose. His gut feel was that LA was actually getting an earlier sunset.

"I can calculate that," I said, and fired up a Python interpreter to check with PyEphem. Since PyEphem doesn't know San Jose (hmph! San Jose is bigger than San Francisco) I used San Francisco.

Since PyEphem's Observer class only has next_rising() and next_setting(), I had to set a start date of midnight so I could subtract the two dates properly to get the length of the day.

```>>> sun = ephem.Sun()
>>> la = ephem.city('Los Angeles')
>>> sf = ephem.city('San Francisco')
>>>
>>> mid = ephem.Date('2012/10/31 8:00')
>>>
>>> la.next_rising(sun, start=mid)
2012/10/31 14:11:57
>>> la.next_setting(sun, start=mid)
2012/11/1 01:00:45
>>> la.next_setting(sun, start=mid) - la.next_rising(sun, start=mid)
0.45055988136300584
>>>
>>> sf.next_rising(sun, start=mid)
2012/10/31 14:34:19
>>> sf.next_setting(sun, start=mid)
2012/11/1 01:11:44
>>> sf.next_setting(sun, start=mid) - sf.next_rising(sun, start=mid)
0.4426457611261867
```

So Dave's intuition was right: northern California really does have a later sunset than southern California at this time of year, even though the total day length is shorter -- the difference in sunrise time makes up for the later sunset.

How much shorter?

```>>> (la.next_setting(sun, start=mid) - la.next_rising(sun, start=mid)) - (sf.next_setting(sun, start=mid) - sf.next_rising(sun, start=mid))
0.007914120236819144
>>> ((la.next_setting(sun, start=mid) - la.next_rising(sun, start=mid)) - (sf.next_setting(sun, start=mid) - sf.next_rising(sun, start=mid))) * 24
0.18993888568365946
>>> ((la.next_setting(sun, start=mid) - la.next_rising(sun, start=mid)) - (sf.next_setting(sun, start=mid) - sf.next_rising(sun, start=mid))) * 24 * 60
11.396333141019568
```

And we have our answer -- there's about 11 minutes difference in day length between SF and LA.

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[ 11:46 Oct 31, 2012    More science/astro | permalink to this entry | comments ]
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