Shallow Thoughts

Akkana's Musings on Open Source Computing and Technology, Science, and Nature.

Thu, 05 Apr 2018

Cave Creek Hiking and Birding Trip

A week ago I got back from a trip to the Chiricahua mountains of southern Arizona, specifically Cave Creek on the eastern side of the range. The trip was theoretically a hiking trip, but it was also for birding and wildlife watching -- southern Arizona is near the Mexican border and gets a lot of birds and other animals not seen in the rest of the US -- and an excuse to visit a friend who lives near there.

Although it's close enough that it could be driven in one fairly long day, we took a roundabout 2-day route so we could explore some other areas along the way that we'd been curious about.

First, we wanted to take a look at the White Mesa Bike Trails northwest of Albuquerque, near the Ojito Wilderness. We'll be back at some point with bikes, but we wanted to get a general idea of the country and terrain. The Ojito, too, looks like it might be worth a hiking trip, though it's rather poorly signed: we saw several kiosks with maps where the "YOU ARE HERE" was clearly completely misplaced. Still, how can you not want to go back to a place where the two main trails are named Seismosaurus and Hoodoo?

[Cabezon] The route past the Ojito also led past Cabezon Peak, a volcanic neck we've seen from a long distance away and wanted to see closer. It's apparently possible to climb it but we're told the top part is fairly technical, more than just a hike.

Finally, we went up and over Mt Taylor, something we've been meaning to do for many years. You can drive fairly close to the top, but this being late spring, there was still snow on the upper part of the road and our Rav4's tires weren't up to the challenge. We'll go back some time and hike all the way to the top.

We spent the night in Grants, then the following day, headed down through El Malpais, stopping briefly at the beautiful Sandstone Overlook, then down through the Datil and Mogollon area. We wanted to take a look at a trail called the Catwalk, but when we got there, it was cold, blustery, and starting to rain and sleet. So we didn't hike the Catwalk this time, but at least we got a look at the beginning of it, then continued down through Silver City and thence to I-10, where just short of the Arizona border we were amused by the Burma Shave dust storm signs about which I already wrote.

At Cave Creek

[Beautiful rocks at Cave Creek] Cave Creek Ranch, in Portal, AZ, turned out to be a lovely place to stay, especially for anyone interested in wildlife. I saw several "life birds" and mammals, plus quite a few more that I'd seen at some point but had never had the opportunity to photograph. Even had we not been hiking, just hanging around the ranch watching the critters was a lot of fun. They charge $5 for people who aren't staying there to come and sit in the feeder area; I'm not sure how strictly they enforce it, but given how much they must spend on feed, it would be nice to help support them.

The bird everyone was looking for was the Elegant Trogon. Supposedly one had been seen recently along the creekbed, and we all wanted to see it.

They also had a nifty suspension bridge for pedestrians crossing a dry (this year) arroyo over on another part of the property. I guess I was so busy watching the critters that I never went wandering around, and I would have missed the bridge entirely had Dave not pointed it out to me on the last day.

The only big hike I did was the Burro Trail to Horseshoe Pass, about 10 miles and maybe 1800 feet of climbing. It started with a long hike up the creek, during which everybody had eyes and ears trained on the sycamores (we were told the trogon favored sycamores). No trogon. But it was a pretty hike, and once we finally started climbing out of the creekbed there were great views of the soaring cliffs above Cave Creek Canyon. Dave opted to skip the upper part of the trail to the saddle; I went, but have to admit that it was mostly just more of the same, with a lot of scrambling and a few difficult and exposed traverses. At the time I thought it was worth it, but by the time we'd slogged all the way back to the cars I was doubting that.

[ Organ Pipe Formation at Chiricahua National Monument ] On the second day the group went over the Chiricahuas to Chiricahua National Monument, on the other side. Forest road 42 is closed in winter, but we'd been told that it was open now since the winter had been such a dry one, and it wasn't a particularly technical road, certainly easy in the Rav4. But we had plans to visit our friend over at the base of the next mountain range west, so we just made a quick visit to the monument, did a quick hike around the nature trail and headed on.

Back with the group at Cave Creek on Thursday, we opted for a shorter, more relaxed hike in the canyon to Ash Spring rather than the brutal ascent to Silver Peak. In the canyon, maybe we'd see the trogon! Nope, no trogon. But it was a very pleasant hike, with our first horned lizard ("horny toad") spotting of the year, a couple of other lizards, and some lovely views.


We'd been making a lot of trogon jokes over the past few days, as we saw visitor after visitor trudging away muttering about not having seen one. "They should rename the town of Portal to Trogon, AZ." "They should rename that B&B Trogon's Roost Bed and Breakfast." Finally, at the end of Thursday's hike, we stopped in at the local ranger station, where among other things (like admiring their caged gila monster) we asked about trogon sightings. Turns out the last one to be seen had been in November. A local thought maybe she'd heard one in January. Whoever had relayed the rumor that one had been seen recently was being wildly optimistic.

[ Northern Cardinal ] [ Coati ] [ Javalina ] [ white-tailed buck ]
Fortunately, I'm not a die-hard birder and I didn't go there specifically for the trogon. I saw lots of good birds and some mammals I'd never seen before (full list), like a coatimundi (I didn't realize those ever came up to the US) and a herd (pack? flock?) of javalinas. And white-tailed deer -- easterners will laugh, but those aren't common anywhere I've lived (mule deer are the rule in California and Northern New Mexico). Plus some good hikes with great views, and a nice visit with our friend. It was a good trip.

On the way home, again we took two days for the opportunity to visit some places we hadn't seen. First, Cloudcroft, NM: a place we'd heard a lot about because a lot of astronomers retire there. It's high in the mountains and quite lovely, with lots of hiking trails in the surrounding national forest. Worth a visit some time.

From Cloudcroft we traveled through the Mescalero Apache reservation, which was unexpectedly beautiful, mountainous and wooded and dotted with nicely kept houses and ranches, to Ruidoso, a nice little town where we spent the night.


[ Lincoln, NM ] Our last stop, Saturday morning, was Lincoln, site of the Lincoln County War (think Billy the Kid). The whole tiny town is set up as a tourist attraction, with old historic buildings ... that were all closed. Because why would any tourists be about on a beautiful Saturday in spring? There were two tiny museums, one at each end of town, which were open, and one of them tried to entice us into paying the entrance fee by assuring us that the ticket was good for all the sites in town. Might have worked, if we hadn't already walked the length of the town peering into windows of all the closed sites. Too bad -- some of them looked interesting, particularly the general store. But we enjoyed our stroll through the town, and we got a giggle out of the tourist town being closed on Saturday -- their approach to tourism seems about as effective as Los Alamos'.

Photos from the trip are at Cave Creek and the Chiricahuas.

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[ 10:04 Apr 05, 2018    More travel | permalink to this entry | comments ]

Mon, 26 Mar 2018

Dust Storm Burma Shave Signs

I just got back from a trip to the Chiricahuas, specifically Cave Creek. More on that later, after I've done some more photo triaging. But first, a story from the road.

[NM Burma Shave dust storm signs]

Driving on I-10 in New Mexico near the Arizona border, we saw several signs about dust storms. The first one said,


Dave commented, "I prefer the ones that say, 'may exist'." And as if the highway department heard him, a minute or two later we passed a much more typical New Mexico road sign:

New Mexico, the existential state.

But then things got more fun. We drove for a few more miles, then we passed a sign that obviously wasn't meant to stand alone:


"It's a Burma Shave!" we said simultaneously. (I'm not old enough to remember Burma Shave signs in real life, but I've heard stories and love the concept.) The next sign came quickly:


"What on earth are they going to find to rhyme with 'roadway'?" I wondered. I racked my brains but couldn't come up with anything. As it turns out, neither could NMDOT. There were three more signs:


"Hmph", I thought. "What an opportunity missed." But I still couldn't come up with a rhyme for "roadway". Since we were on Interstate 10, and there's not much to do on a long freeway drive, I penned an alternative:


Much better, isn't it? But one thing bothered me: you're not really supposed to pull all the way off Interstate 10, just onto the shoulder. How about:


I wasn't quite happy with it. I thought my next attempt was an improvement:

but Dave said I should stick with "GET MUCH OLDER".

Oh, well. Even if I'm not old enough to remember real Burma Shave signs, and even if NMDOT doesn't have the vision to make their own signs rhyme, I can still have fun with the idea.

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[ 16:05 Mar 26, 2018    More travel | permalink to this entry | comments ]

Sat, 10 Mar 2018

Intel Galileo v2 Linux Basics

[Intel Galileo Gen2 by Mwilde2 on Wikimedia commons] Our makerspace got a donation of a bunch of Galileo gen2 boards from Intel (image from Mwilde2 on Wikimedia commons).

The Galileo line has been discontinued, so there's no support and no community, but in theory they're fairly interesting boards. You can use a Galileo in two ways: you can treat it like an Arduino, after using the Arduino IDE to download a Galileo hardware definition since they're not Atmega chips. They even have Arduino-format headers so you can plug in an Arduino shield. That works okay (once you figure out that you need to download the Galileo v2 hardware definitions, not the regular Galileo). But they run Linux under the hood, so you can also use them as a single-board Linux computer.

Serial Cable

The first question is how to talk to the board. The documentation is terrible, and web searches aren't much help because these boards were never terribly popular. Worse, the v1 boards seem to have been more widely adopted than the v2 boards, so a lot of what you find on the web doesn't apply to v2. For instance, the v1 required a special serial cable that used a headphone jack as its connector.

Some of the Intel documentation talks about how you can load a special Arduino sketch that then disables the Arduino bootloader and instead lets you use the USB cable as a serial monitor. That made me nervous: once you load that sketch, Arduino mode no longer works until you run a command on Linux to start it up again. So if the sketch doesn't work, you may have no way to talk to the Galileo. Given the state of the documentation I'd already struggled with for Arduino mode, it didn't sound like a good gamble. I thought a real serial cable sounded like a better option.

Of course, the Galileo documentation doesn't tell you what needs to plug in where for a serial cable. The board does have a standard FTDI 6-pin header on the board next to the ethernet jack, and the labels on the pins seemed to correspond to the standard pinout on my Adafruit FTDI Friend: Gnd, CTS, VCC, TX, RX, RTS. So I tried that first, using GNU screen to connect to it from Linux just like I would a Raspberry Pi with a serial cable:

screen /dev/ttyUSB0 115200

Powered up the Galileo and sure enough, I got boot messages and was able to log in as root with no password. It annoyingly forces orange text on a black background, making it especially hard to read on a light-background terminal, but hey, it's a start.

Later I tried a Raspberry Pi serial cable, with just RX (green), TX (white) and Gnd (black) -- don't use the red VCC wire since the Galileo is already getting power from its own power brick -- and that worked too. The Galileo doesn't actually need CTS or RTS. So that's good: two easy ways to talk to the board without buying specialized hardware. Funny they didn't bother to mention it in the docs.

Blinking an LED from the Command Line

Once connected, how do you do anything? Most of the Intel tutorials on Linux are useless, devoting most of their space to things like how to run Putty on Windows and no space at all to how to talk to pins. But I finally found a discussion thread with a Python example for Galileo. That's not immediately helpful since the built-in Linux doesn't have python installed (nor gcc, natch). Fortunately, the Python example used files in /sys rather than a dedicated Python library; we can access /sys files just as well from the shell.

Of course, the first task is to blink an LED on pin 13. That apparently corresponds to GPIO 7 (what are the other arduino/GPIO correspondences? I haven't found a reference for that yet.) So you need to export that pin (which creates /sys/class/gpio/gpio7 and set its direction to out. But that's not enough: the pin still doesn't turn on when you echo 1 > /sys/class/gpio/gpio7/value. Why not? I don't know, but the Python script exports three other pins -- 46, 30, and 31 -- and echoes 0 to 30 and 31. (It does this without first setting their directions to out, and if you try that, you'll get an error, so I'm not convinced the Python script presented as the "Correct answer" would actually have worked. Be warned.)

Anyway, I ended up with these shell lines as preparation before the Galileo can actually blink:

# echo 7 >/sys/class/gpio/export

# echo out > /sys/class/gpio/gpio7/direction

# echo 46 >/sys/class/gpio/export
# echo 30 >/sys/class/gpio/export
# echo 31 >/sys/class/gpio/export

# echo out > /sys/class/gpio/gpio30/direction
# echo out > /sys/class/gpio/gpio31/direction
# echo 0  > /sys/class/gpio/gpio30/value
# echo 0  > /sys/class/gpio/gpio31/value

And now, finally, you can control the LED on pin 13 (GPIO 7):

# echo 1 > /sys/class/gpio/gpio7/value
# echo 0 > /sys/class/gpio/gpio7/value
or run a blink loop:
# while /bin/true; do
> echo 1  > /sys/class/gpio/gpio7/value
> sleep 1
> echo 0  > /sys/class/gpio/gpio7/value
> sleep 1
> done

Searching Fruitlessly for a "Real" Linux Image

All the Galileo documentation is emphatic that you should download a Linux distro and burn it to an SD card rather than using the Yocto that comes preinstalled. The preinstalled Linux apparently has no persistent storage, so not only does it not save your Linux programs, it doesn't even remember the current Arduino sketch. And it has no programming languages and only a rudimentary busybox shell. So finding and downloading a Linux distro was the next step.

Unfortunately, that mostly led to dead ends. All the official Intel docs describe different download filenames, and they all point to generic download pages that no longer include any of the filenames mentioned. Apparently Intel changed the name for its Galileo images frequently and never updated its documentation.

After forty-five minutes of searching and clicking around, I eventually found my way to IntelĀ® IoT Developer Kit Installer Files, which includes sizable downloads with names like

From the size, I suspect those are all Linux images. But what are they and how do they differ? Do any of them still have working repositories? Which ones come with Python, with gcc, with GPIO support, with useful development libraries? Do any of them get security updates?

As far as I can tell, the only way to tell is to download each image, burn it to a card, boot from it, then explore the filesystem trying to figure out what distro it is and how to try updating it.

But by this time I'd wasted three hours and gotten no further than the shell commands to blink a single LED, and I ran out of enthusiasm. I mean, I could spend five more hours on this, try several of the Linux images, and see which one works best. Or I could spend $10 on a Raspberry Pi Zero W that has abundant documentation, libraries, books, and community howtos. Plus wi-fi, bluetooth and HDMI, none of which the Galileo has.

Arduino and Linux Living Together

So that's as far as I've gone. But I do want to note one useful thing I stumbled upon while searching for information about Linux distributions:

Starting Arduino sketch from Linux terminal shows how to run an Arduino sketch (assuming it's already compiled) from Linux:

sketch.elf /dev/ttyGS0 &

It's a fairly cool option to have. Maybe one of these days, I'll pick one of the many available distros and try it.

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[ 13:54 Mar 10, 2018    More hardware | permalink to this entry | comments ]

Thu, 01 Mar 2018

Re-enabling PHP when a Debian system upgrade disables it

I updated my Debian Testing system via apt-get upgrade, as one does during the normal course of running a Debian system. The next time I went to a locally hosted website, I discovered PHP didn't work. One of my websites gave an error, due to a directive in .htaccess; another one presented pages that were full of PHP code interspersed with the HTML of the page. Ick!

In theory, Debian updates aren't supposed to change configuration files without asking first, but in practice, silent and unexpected Apache bustage is fairly common. But for this one, I couldn't find anything in a web search, so maybe this will help.

The problem turned out to be that /etc/apache2/mods-available/ includes four files:

$ ls /etc/apache2/mods-available/*php*

The appropriate files are supposed to be linked from there into /etc/apache2/mods-enabled. Presumably, I previously had a link to ../mods-available/php7.0.* (or perhaps 7.1?); the upgrade to PHP 7.2 must have removed that existing link without replacing it with a link to the new ../mods-available/php7.2.*.

The solution is to restore those links, either with ln -s or with the approved apache2 commands (as root, of course):

# a2enmod php7.2
# systemctl restart apache2

Whew! Easy fix, but it took a while to realize what was broken, and would have been nice if it didn't break in the first place. Why is the link version-specific anyway? Why isn't there a file called /etc/apache2/mods-available/php.* for the latest version? Does PHP really change enough between minor releases to break websites? Doesn't it break a website more to disable PHP entirely than to swap in a newer version of it?

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[ 10:31 Mar 01, 2018    More linux | permalink to this entry | comments ]

Fri, 23 Feb 2018

PEEC Planetarium Show: "The Analemma Dilemma"

[Analemma by Giuseppe Donatiello via Wikimedia Commons] Dave and I are giving a planetarium show at PEEC tonight on the analemma.

I've been interested in the analemma for years and have written about it before, here on the blog and in the SJAA Ephemeris. But there were a lot of things I still didn't understand as well as I liked. When we signed up three months ago to give this talk, I had plenty of lead time to do more investigating, uncovering lots of interesting details regarding the analemmas of other planets, the contributions of the two factors that go into the Equation of Time, why some analemmas are figure-8s while some aren't, and the supposed "moon analemmas" that have appeared on the Astronomy Picture of the Day. I added some new features to the analemma script I'd written years ago as well as corresponding with an expert who'd written some great Equation of Time code for all the planets. It's been fun.

I'll write about some of what I learned when I get a chance, but meanwhile, people in the Los Alamos area can hear all about it tonight, at our PEEC show: The Analemma Dilemma, 7 pm tonight, Friday Feb 23, at the Nature Center, admission $6/adult, $4/child.

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[ 10:23 Feb 23, 2018    More science/astro | permalink to this entry | comments ]

Sat, 17 Feb 2018

Multiplexing Input or Output on a Raspberry Pi Part 2: Port Expanders

In the previous article I talked about Multiplexing input/output using shift registers for a music keyboard project. I ended up with three CD4021 8-bit shift registers cascaded. It worked; but I found that I was spending all my time in the delays between polling each bit serially. I wanted a way to read those bits faster. So I ordered some I/O expander chips.

[Keyboard wired to Raspberry Pi with two MCP23017 port expanders] I/O expander, or port expander, chips take a lot of the hassle out of multiplexing. Instead of writing code to read bits serially, you can use I2C. Some chips also have built-in pullup resistors, so you don't need all those extra wires for pullups or pulldowns. There are lots of options, but two common chips are the MCP23017, which controls 16 lines, and the MCP23008 and PCF8574p, which each handle 8. I'll only discuss the MCP23017 here, because if eight is good, surely sixteen is better! But the MCP23008 is basically the same thing with fewer I/O lines.

A good tutorial to get you started is How To Use A MCP23017 I2C Port Expander With The Raspberry Pi - 2013 Part 1 along with part 2, Python and part 3, reading input.

I'm not going to try to repeat what's in those tutorials, just fill in some gaps I found. For instance, I didn't find I needed sudo for all those I2C commands in Part 1 since my user is already in the i2c group.

Using Python smbus

Part 2 of that tutorial uses Python smbus, but it doesn't really explain all the magic numbers it uses, so it wasn't obvious how to generalize it when I added a second expander chip. It uses this code:

DEVICE = 0x20 # Device address (A0-A2)
IODIRA = 0x00 # Pin direction register
OLATA  = 0x14 # Register for outputs
GPIOA  = 0x12 # Register for inputs

# Set all GPA pins as outputs by setting
# all bits of IODIRA register to 0

# Set output all 7 output bits to 0

DEVICE is the address on the I2C bus, the one you see with i2cdetect -y 1 (20, initially).

IODIRA is the direction: when you call

bus.write_byte_data(DEVICE, IODIRA, 0x00)
you're saying that all eight bits in GPA should be used for output. Zero specifies output, one input: so if you said
bus.write_byte_data(DEVICE, IODIRA, 0x1F)
you'd be specifying that you want to use the lowest five bits for output and the upper three for input.

OLATA = 0x14 is the command to use when writing data:

bus.write_byte_data(DEVICE, OLATA, MyData)
means write data to the eight GPA pins. But what if you want to write to the eight GPB pins instead? Then you'd use
OLATB  = 0x15
bus.write_byte_data(DEVICE, OLATB, MyData)

Likewise, if you want to read input from some of the GPB bits, use

GPIOB  = 0x13
val = bus.read_byte_data(DEVICE, GPIOB)

The MCP23017 even has internal pullup resistors you can enable:

GPPUA  = 0x0c    # Pullup resistor on GPA
GPPUB  = 0x0d    # Pullup resistor on GPB
bus.write_byte_data(DEVICE, GPPUB, inmaskB)

Here's a full example: on GitHub.

Using WiringPi

You can also talk to an MCP23017 using the WiringPi library. In that case, you don't set all the bits at once, but instead treat each bit as though it were a separate pin. That's easier to think about conceptually -- you don't have to worry about bit shifting and masking, just use pins one at a time -- but it might be slower if the library is doing a separate read each time you ask for an input bit. It's probably not the right approach to use if you're trying to check a whole keyboard's state at once.

Start by picking a base address for the pin number -- 65 is the lowest you can pick -- and initializing:

pin_base = 65
i2c_addr = 0x20

wiringpi.mcp23017Setup(pin_base, i2c_addr)

Then you can set input or output mode for each pin:

wiringpi.pinMode(pin_base, wiringpi.OUTPUT)
wiringpi.pinMode(input_pin, wiringpi.INPUT)
and then write to or read from each pin:
wiringpi.digitalWrite(pin_no, 1)
val = wiringpi.digitalRead(pin_no)

WiringPi also gives you access to the MCP23017's internal pullup resistors:

wiringpi.pullUpDnControl(input_pin, 2)

Here's an example in Python: on GitHub, and one in C: MCP23017-wiringpi.c on GitHub.

Using multiple MCP23017s

But how do you cascade several MCP23017 chips?

Well, you don't actually cascade them. Since they're I2C devices, you wire them so they each have different addresses on the I2C bus, then query them individually. Happily, that's easier than keeping track of how many bits you've looped through ona shift register.

Pins 15, 16 and 17 on the chip are the address lines, labeled A0, A1 and A2. If you ground all three you get the base address of 0x20. With all three connected to VCC, it will use 0x27 (binary 111 added to the base address). So you can send commands to your first device at 0x20, then to your second one at 0x21 and so on. If you're using WiringPi, you can call mcp23017Setup(pin_base2, i2c_addr2) for your second chip.

I had trouble getting the addresses to work initially, and it turned out the problem wasn't in my understanding of the address line wiring, but that one of my cheap Chinese breadboard had a bad power and ground bus in one quadrant. That's a good lesson for the future: when things don't work as expected, don't assume the breadboard is above suspicion.

Using two MCP23017 chips with their built-in pullup resistors simplified the wiring for my music keyboard enormously, and it made the code cleaner too. Here's the modified code: on GitHub.

What about the speed? It is indeed quite a bit faster than the shift register code. But it's still too laggy to use as a real music keyboard. So I'll still need to do more profiling, and maybe find a faster way of generating notes, if I want to play music on this toy.

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[ 15:44 Feb 17, 2018    More hardware | permalink to this entry | comments ]

Tue, 13 Feb 2018

Multiplexing Input or Output on a Raspberry Pi Part 1: Shift Registers

I was scouting for parts at a thrift shop and spotted a little 23-key music keyboard. It looked like a fun Raspberry Pi project.

I was hoping it would turn out to use some common protocol like I2C, but when I dissected it, it turned out there was a ribbon cable with 32 wires coming from the keyboard. So each key is a separate pushbutton.

[23-key keyboard wired to a Raspberry Pi] A Raspberry Pi doesn't have that many GPIO pins, and neither does an Arduino Uno. An Arduino Mega does, but buying a Mega to go between the Pi and the keyboard kind of misses the point of scavenging a $3 keyboard; I might as well just buy an I2C or MIDI keyboard. So I needed some sort of I/O multiplexer that would let me read 31 keys using a lot fewer pins.

There are a bunch of different approaches to multiplexing. A lot of keyboards use a matrix approach, but that makes more sense when you're wiring up all the buttons from scratch, not starting with a pre-wired keyboard like this. The two approaches I'll discuss here are shift registers and multiplexer chips.

If you just want to get the job done in the most efficient way, you definitely want a multiplexer (port expander) chip, which I'll cover in Part 2. But for now, let's look at the old-school way: shift registers.

PISO Shift Registers

There are lots of types of shift registers, but for reading lots of inputs, you need a PISO shift register: "Parallel In, Serial Out." That means you can tell the chip to read some number -- typically 8 -- of inputs in parallel, then switch into serial mode and read all the bits one at a time.

Some PISO shift registers can cascade: you can connect a second shift register to the first one and read twice as many bits. For 23 keys I needed three 8-bit shift registers.

Two popular cascading PISO shift registers are the CD4021 and the SN74LS165. They work similarly but they're not exactly the same.

The basic principle with both the CD4021 and the SN74LS165: connect power and ground, and wire up all your inputs to the eight data pins. You'll need pullup or pulldown resistors on each input line, just like you normally would for a pushbutton; I recommend picking up a few high-value (like 1-10k) resistor arrays: you can get these in SIP (single inline package) or DIP (dual-) form factors that plug easily into a breadboard. Resistor arrays can be either independent two pins for each resistor in the array) or bussed (one pin in the chip is a common pin, which you wire to ground for a pulldown or V+ for a pullup; each of the rest of the pins is a resistor). I find bussed networks particularly handy because they can reduce the number of wires you need to run, and with a job where you're multiplexing lots of lines, you'll find that getting the wiring straight is a big part of the job. (See the photo above to see what a snarl this was even with resistor networks.)

For the CD4021, connect three more pins: clock and data pins (labeled CLK and either Q7 or Q8 on the chip's pinout, pins 10 and 3), plus a "latch" pin (labeled M, pin 9). For the SN74LS165, you need one more pin: you need clock and data (labeled CP and Q7, pins 2 and 9), latch (labeled PL, pin 1), and clock enable (labeled CE, pin 15).

At least for the CD4021, some people recommend a 0.1 uF bypass capacitor across the power/ground connections of each CD4021.

If you need to cascade several chips with the CD4021, wire DS (pin 11) from the first chip to Q7 (pin 3), then wire both chips clock lines together and both chips' data lines together. The SN74LS165 is the same: DS (pin 10) to Q8 (pin 9) and tie the clock and data lines together.

Once wired up, you toggle the latch to read the parallel data, then toggle it again and use the clock pin to read the series of bits. You can see the specific details in my Python scripts: on GitHub and on GitHub.

Some References

For wiring diagrams, more background, and Arduino code for the CD4021, read Arduino ShiftIn. For the SN74LS165, read: Arduino: SN74HC165N, 74HC165 8 bit Parallel in/Serial out Shift Register, or Sparkfun: Shift Registers.

Of course, you can use a shift register for output as well as input. In that case you need a SIPO (Serial In, Parallel Out) shift register like a 74HC595. See Arduino ShiftOut: Serial to Parallel Shifting-Out with a 74HC595 Interfacing 74HC595 Serial Shift Register with Raspberry Pi. Another, less common option is the 74HC164N: Using a SN74HC164N Shift Register With Raspberry Pi

For input from my keyboard, initially I used three CD4021s. It basically worked, and you can see the code for it at (older version, for CD4021 shift registers), on GitHub.

But it turned out that looping over all those bits was slow -- I've been advised that you should wait at least 25 microseconds between bits for the CD4021, and even at 10 microseconds I found there wasa significant delay between hitting the key and hearing the note.I thought it might be all the fancy numpy code to generate waveforms for the chords, but when I used the Python profiler, it said most of the program's time was taken up in time.sleep(). Fortunately, there's a faster solution than shift registers: port expanders, which I'll talk about in Multiplexing Part 2: Port Expanders.

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[ 12:23 Feb 13, 2018    More hardware | permalink to this entry | comments ]

Fri, 02 Feb 2018

Raspberry Pi Console over USB: Configuring an Ethernet Gadget

When I work with a Raspberry Pi from anywhere other than home, I want to make sure I can do what I need to do without a network.

With a Pi model B, you can use an ethernet cable. But that doesn't work with a Pi Zero, at least not without an adapter. The lowest common denominator is a serial cable, and I always recommend that people working with headless Pis get one of these; but there are a lot of things that are difficult or impossible over a serial cable, like file transfer, X forwarding, and running any sort of browser or other network-aware application on the Pi.

Recently I learned how to configure a Pi Zero as a USB ethernet gadget, which lets you network between the Pi and your laptop using only a USB cable. It requires a bit of setup, but it's definitely worth it. (This apparently only works with Zero and Zero W, not with a Pi 3.)

The Cable

The first step is getting the cable. For a Pi Zero or Zero W, you can use a standard micro-USB cable: you probably have a bunch of them for charging phones (if you're not an Apple person) and other devices.

Set up the Pi

Setting up the Raspberry Pi end requires editing two files in /boot, which you can do either on the Pi itself, or by mounting the first SD card partition on another machine.

In /boot/config.txt add this at the end:


In /boot/cmdline.txt, at the end of the long list of options but on the same line, add a space, followed by: modules-load=dwc2,g_ether

Set a static IP address

This step is optional. In theory you're supposed to use some kind of .local address that Bonjour (the Apple protocol that used to be called zeroconf, and before that was called Rendezvous, and on Linux machines is called Avahi). That doesn't work on my Linux machine. If you don't use Bonjour, finding the Pi over the ethernet link will be much easier if you set it up to use a static IP address. And since there will be nobody else on your USB network besides the Pi and the computer on the other end of the cable, there's no reason not to have a static address: you're not going to collide with anybody else.

You could configure a static IP in /etc/network/interfaces, but that interferes with the way Raspbian handles wi-fi via wpa_supplicant and dhcpcd; so you'd have USB networking but your wi-fi won't work any more.

Instead, configure your address in Raspbian via dhcpcd. Edit /etc/dhcpcd.conf and add this:

interface usb0
static ip_address=
static routers=
static domain_name_servers=

This will tell Raspbian to use address for its USB interface. You'll set up your other computer to use

Now your Pi should be ready to boot with USB networking enabled. Plug in a USB cable (if it's a model A or B) or a micro USB cable (if it's a Zero), plug the other end into your computer, then power up the Pi.

Setting up a Linux machine for USB networking

The final step is to configure your local computer's USB ethernet to use

On Linux, find the name of the USB ethernet interface. This will only show up after you've booted the Pi with the ethernet cable plugged in to both machines.

ip a
The USB interface will probably start eith en and will probably be the last interface shown.

On my Debian machine, the USB network showed up as enp0s26u1u1. So I can configure it thusly (as root, of course):

ip a add dev enp0s26u1u1
ip link set dev enp0s26u1u1 up
(You can also use the older ifconfig rather than ip: sudo ifconfig enp0s26u1u1 up)

You should now be able to ssh into your Raspberry Pi using the address, and you can make an appropriate entry in /etc/hosts, if you wish.

For a less hands-on solution, if you're using Mac or Windows, try Adafruit's USB gadget tutorial. It's possible that might also work for Linux machines running Avahi. If you're using Windows, you might prefer CircuitBasics' ethernet gadget tutorial.

Happy networking!

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[ 14:53 Feb 02, 2018    More linux | permalink to this entry | comments ]