Driving motors, CHEAPLY, with an Arduino (Shallow Thoughts)

Akkana's Musings on Open Source Computing, Science, and Nature.

Mon, 25 Jun 2012

Driving motors, CHEAPLY, with an Arduino

Some time ago, I wrote about my explorations into the options for driving motors from an Arduino.

Motor shields worked well -- but they cost around $50 each, more than the Arduino itself. That's fine for a single one, but I'm teaching an Arduino workshop (this Thursday!) for high school girls, and I needed something I could buy more cheaply so I could get more of them.

(Incidentally, if any women in the Bay Area want to help with the workshop this Thursday, June 28 2012, I could definitely use a few more helpers! Please drop me an email.)

What I found on the web and on the Arduino IRC channel was immensely confusing to someone who isn't an electronics expert -- most people recommended things like building custom H-bridge circuits out of zener diodes.

[Simple Arduino h-bridge (half-bridge) circuit] But it's not that complicated after all. I got the help I needed from ITP Physical Computing's DC Motor Control Using an H-Bridge. It turns out you can buy a chip called an SN754410 that implements an H-bridge circuit -- including routing a power source to the motors while keeping the Arduino's power supply isolated -- for under $2. I ordered my SN754410 chips from Jameco and they arrived the next day.

(Technically, the SN754410 is a "quad half-bridge" rather than an "dual h-bridge". In practice I'm not sure of the difference. There's another chip, the L298, which is a full h-bridge and is also cheap to buy -- but it's a bit harder to use because the pins are wonky and it doesn't plug in directly to a breadboard unless you bend the pins around. I decided to stick with the SN754410; but the L298 might be better for high-powered motors.)

Now, the SN754410 isn't as simple to use as a motor shield. It has a lot of wires -- for two motors, you'll need six Arduino output pins, plus a 5v reference and ground, the four wires to the two motors, and the two wires to the motor power supply. Here's the picture of the wiring, made with Fritzing.

[Half-bridge circuit on breadboard] With all those wires, I didn't want to make the girls wire them up themselves -- it's way too easy to make a mistake and connect the wrong pin (as I found when doing my own testing). So I've wired up several of them on mini-breadboards so they'll be more or less ready to use. They look like little white mutant spiders with all the wires going everywhere.

A simple library for half-bridge motor control

The programming for the SN754410 is a bit less simple than motor shields as well. For each motor, you need an enable pin on the Arduino -- the analog signal that controls the motor's speed, so it needs to be one of the Arduino's PWM output pins, 9, 10 or 11 -- plus two logic pins, which can be any of the digital output pins.

To spin the motor in one direction, set the first logic pin high and the second low; to spin in the other direction, reverse the pins, with the first one low and the second one high. That's simple enough to program -- but I didn't look forward to trying to explain it to a group of high school students with basically no programming experience.

To make it simpler for them, I wrote a drop-in library that simplifies the code quite a bit. It defines a Motor object that you can initialize with the pins you'll be using -- the enable pin first, then the two logic pins. Initialize them in setup() like this:

#include 

Motor motors[2] = { Motor(9, 2, 3), Motor(10, 4, 5) };

void setup()
{
    motors[0].init();
    motors[1].init();
}

Then from your loop() function, you can make calls like this:

    motors[0].setSpeed(128);
    motors[1].setSpeed(-85);
Setting a negative speed will tell the library to reverse the logic pins so the motor spins the opposite direction.

I hope this will make motors easier to deal with for the girls who choose to try them. (We'll be giving them a choice of projects, so some of them may prefer to make light shows with LEDs, or music with piezo buzzers.)

You can get the code for the HalfBridge library, and a sample sketch that uses it, at my Arduino github repository

Cheap and easy motor control -- and I have a fleet of toy cars to connect to them. I hope this ends up being a fun workshop!

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[ 21:32 Jun 25, 2012    More hardware | permalink to this entry | comments ]
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