Raspberry Pi quickstart: headless setup (no monitor) (Shallow Thoughts)

Akkana's Musings on Open Source Computing, Science, and Nature.

Tue, 31 Jul 2012

Raspberry Pi quickstart: headless setup (no monitor)

Raspberry Pi, the tiny, cheap, low-power Linux computer, dropped their order restrictions a few weeks ago, and it finally became possible for anyone to order one. I immediately (well, a day later, since the two sites that sell them were slashdotted with people trying to order) put in an order with Newark/element14. They said they were backordered six weeks, but I wasn't in a hurry -- I just wanted to get in the queue.

Imagine my surprise when half a week later I got a notice that my Pi had shipped! I got it yesterday. Thanks, Element14!

The Pi comes with no OS preloaded -- it boots off the SD card. a download page where you can get an image of Debian Wheezy their recommendation), Arch, or several other Linux distros. I downloaded their latest Wheezy image and unzipped it.

But instructions on what to do from there are scanty, and tend to be heavy on "click on this, then drag to here" directives that make no sense if you're not using whatever desktop they assume you have. So here's what ended up working.

Writing the SD card with dd

First, make sure you downloaded the image correctly: sha1sum 2012-07-15-wheezy-raspbian.zip and compare the sum it prints out with the one on the download page.

Then get an appropriate SD card. The image is sized for a 2G card, so that's what I used, but you can use a larger card if needed ... you'll only get 2G initially but you can resize the partition later.

Plug the SD card into a reader on your regular Linux desktop/laptop machine, and figure out which device it is: I used cat /proc/partitions.

Then, assuming the SD card is in /dev/sdb (make sure of this! you don't want to destroy your system disk by writing the wrong place!)

dd bs=1M if=2012-07-15-wheezy-raspbian.img of=/dev/sdb
sync
Wait a while, make sure all the lights are off in your SD drive, then remove the SD card from the reader. (Yes, even if you're about to mount it to change something.)

Headless Raspberry Pi

Now you have an SD card that will probably boot your Pi. If you want to run X on it and see a desktop, you'll need a USB keyboard and mouse, some sort of monitor, and the appropriate cable. That stopped me. The Pi needs either an HDMI to DVI cable -- which I don't have, though I will buy one as soon as I get a chance -- or an RCA composite video cable. I think our old CRT TV can take composite video, but what I see on the net suggests this is a poor solution for the Pi since the resolution and image quality aren't really adequate.

But in any case, one of my main intended uses for the Pi involves using it headless, as a robotics controller, in connection with an Arduino or other hardware for analog device control. So the Pi needs to be able to boot without a monitor, taking commands via its built-in ethernet interface, probably using ssh. That means making some changes to the SD card.

Reinsert the card. (Why not just leave it in place? Because the image you just wrote changed the partition table, and your computer won't see the change unless you remove and reinsert the card.)

The card now has two partitions on it -- you can check that via /proc/partitions. The first is the /boot partition, where you shouldn't need to change anything. The second is the root filesystem. Mount the second partition if your system didn't do that automatically:

mount /dev/sdb2 /mnt

Now specify a static IP address, so you'll always know how to get to your Pi. Edit /mnt/etc/network/interfaces and change the iface eth0 inet dhcp line to something like this, using numbers that will work for your local network:

iface eth0 inet static
address 192.168.1.50
netmask 255.255.255.0
gateway 192.168.1.1

Now, if you google for other people who want to ssh in to their Raspberry Pis or run them headless, you will find approximately 1,532,776 pages telling you that to enable sshd you'll need to rename a file named boot_enable_ssh.rc somewhere on the /boot partition to boot.rc. Disregard this. There is no such file on the current official wheezy pi images, and you will go crazy looking for it.

Happily, it turns out that the current images have the ssh server enabled by default. You can verify that by looking at /mnt/etc/init.d/ssh and seeing that it starts sshd. So after setting a static IP, you're ready to umount /mnt

You're done! Remove the card, stick it in the Raspberry Pi, plug in an ethernet cable, then power it with a micro USB cable. Wait a minute or two (it's not the world's fastest booter, and you should be able to ssh pi@192.168.1.50 or whatever address you gave it. Log in with the password specified on the Downloads page where you got the OS image ... and you're good to go.

Fun! Now I'm off to find an HDMI-DVI cable.

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[ 20:26 Jul 31, 2012    More hardware | permalink to this entry | comments ]
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